Types of Irrigation

Types of Irrigation

Types and Importance of irrigation system

As water is very important for our life. Life is impossible without water, in the same way, water is also needed for crops. Irrigation is a technique which is done when there is no rain, that is, irrigation is used in the form of augmentation of groundwater in a dry land.

Irrigation is a technique which is done through wells, canals, rivers, dams etc. when there is no rain. Irrigation is essential for the growth of the crop.

As we have also mentioned in the previous blog that more than half of the population of our country is dependent on agriculture. Different types of irrigation systems are used for agriculture in every state and region of India.

 Different means are used for irrigation in our country, such as wells, reservoirs, canals, rivers, dams, lakes etc.

Definition of Irrigation

Definition of Irrigation Irrigation refers to the watering of crops by artificial means. So that crops can get water as per their requirement. In other words, water is given to the plants at fixed intervals through irrigation.

 So that a sufficient quantity of water can be made available to the crops. As we all know, agricultural production largely depends on the availability of water. The irrigation system helps in reducing the dependence of farmers on rainwater. It helps in cultivating better crops along with the supply of water as per the requirement of the crops. Which ultimately helps in economic development.

Irrigation Methods in India

3 main sources of irrigation in India are wells, canals and ponds. Whose percentage contribution is as follows –

 Canal - 40.0 percent

Well - 37.8 per cent

Pond - 14.5 per cent

 Others - 7.7 per cent


Canals are the main source of irrigation in India. More than 40 per cent of the agricultural land is irrigated by canals. Most of the development of our country's canals has been done in the vast plains of the north and the coastal delta areas because their construction depends on the flat land and continuous supply of water. There are mainly two types of canals.

Frequent canals

These canals are drawn from the rivers flowing throughout the year and are always filled with water. It is noteworthy that the water of the river is first stopped by making dams and water is supplied from them to the canals. For example, Ramganga canal, Sharda canal

 Flood Canals

In these, a continuous supply of water throughout the year is not possible and they are used for irrigation only during the floods coming in the rivers. Only one crop can be irrigated in a year through such canals. These types of canals are often found in South India, where water is not available in these canals to flow throughout the year.

Well water source

 (As of 2001) the well is second only to the canal. Which was in the first place in ancient times. Underground water from wells is pulled up by animal power, rats, and electric pumps. Such areas are considered suitable for irrigation by wells, where permeable rock formation is found. The parallel topography with alluvial soil is suitable for digging wells and the productivity of such land is also high. In the states of Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Maharashtra and Gujarat, 50% or more per cent of the total irrigated area is irrigated by wells. A large part of Madhya Pradesh and Tamil Nadu is also irrigated by wells.


The most important means of irrigation in the peninsular plateau part of India is the pond itself. For example, in some parts of Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala and Madhya Pradesh, Odisha and West Bengal, rainwater is collected by dams in natural gats or excavated ponds. This stored water is carried to the fields through drains.

Importance of irrigation

In a country like India, due to uneven distribution of rainfall and erratic rainfall, there are often famines and droughts. Due to this, the importance of artificial irrigation increases.

Irrigation retains moisture in the soil. Moisture is essential for seed germination. Seeds do not grow in dry soil, so irrigation is done before ploughing.

Irrigation is essential for the growth of roots of crop plants. Plant roots do not develop well in dry soil.

Irrigation is essential for the absorption of mineral nutrients by plants from the soil. Thus, irrigation is necessary for the normal growth of plants.

Water provides two vital elements, hydrogen and oxygen for the crop..

Irrigation Types

Most of the cultivable areas in India have surface irrigation. In this irrigation system, water is distributed in the field through drains and water is spread in the field from one side. In this system, there is a lot of water loss if the field is not prepared properly. Water can also be saved in this system if the field is levelled.

Advantages of surface irrigation method

In this method of irrigation, the cost is less compared to others. This method is easy and convenient. It does not require different types of machines. Hence it is convenient for small farmers.

Sprinkler irrigation system

Sprinkler irrigation is also called a sprinkler irrigation system. This method is similar to natural precipitation. In this method, water is given as rain to the fields, usually through a pipe and sprinkler. Simply put, water is used as a sprinkler in irrigation through the sprinkler method. Due to this drops fall like rain on the plant. This irrigation system requires a sprinkler device. In which there is a pump, main hose, side hose, water lifting tube and water sprinkler.

Benefits of Sprinkler irrigation

Irrigation by this method directly saves up to 25-50 per cent of water. When water is sprinkled like rain, there is no water logging on the land, due to which water flow is not harmed due to fewer sprinklers than the rate of water absorption of the soil. In places where land is high and low, surface irrigation is not possible, in those places, rainwater irrigation proves to be a boon. In this method, soluble fertilizers, insecticides or weedicides can also be easily used along with irrigation water. Irrigation by the rainfed irrigation method does not harm the crop due to frost. In areas with water scarcity, and limited water availability, double to three times the area under surface irrigation can be expected.

A drip irrigation system is also called the micro-irrigation method. This method is generally the best and most modern method of giving fertilizer and water to horticultural crops.

In a micro-irrigation system, more area is irrigated with less water. In this system, water is delivered to the farm through a pipeline. This not only prevents wastage of water but also helps in increasing water use efficiency.

Drip Irrigation

A drip irrigation system is also called the micro-irrigation method. This method is generally the best and most modern method of giving fertilizer and water to horticultural crops.

In a micro-irrigation system, more area is irrigated with less water. In this system, water is delivered to the farm through a pipeline. This not only prevents wastage of water but also helps in increasing water use efficiency.

Benefits of drip irrigation

In most of our country, water is brought through kutcha drains for irrigation in the fields, due to which about 30-40 per cent of the water goes to waste due to seepage. In such a situation, there is a benefit in using the micro-irrigation method only. By using this method, farmers save about 30-40 per cent of water. Irrigation with this system also improves the quality and productivity of crops. It is useful for all types of soils, as water can be adjusted according to the type of soil. Due to drip irrigation, the possibility of soil erosion is very less and there is no shortage of moisture in the soil, which has a favorable effect on the growth and development of plants.

V.K. Rain Pipe Pro Irrigation System includes a "Do It Yourself Kit". The kit can be installed by anyone without the need for a professional. All parts are included in the kit for rain irrigation. This is India's first UV-coated Rain Irrigation System.

It is more durable than other rain irrigation systems. It is easy to assemble and move. This system reduces energy and water consumption by up to 50%. The System can spray 20-25 feet from each side with the right water pressure. V.K. Rain Pipe Pro requires 2 kg. water pressure. It's a durable, lightweight and versatile product that farmers can use.

Rain irrigation Benefits

V.K. Rain Pipe Irrigation System is suitable for closely spaced crops onion, vegetable crops, leafy vegetables, groundnuts, etc.

  •  The rain pipe irrigation system is superior to all other irrigation systems.
  • Easy to install
  • Easy to carry around
  • Easy to handle
  • Comes with Do it yourself kit
  • Irrigate your 1 acre field in just 30 minutes